2014 - Transplant Infectious Disease Conference

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Pesky Pathogens: Mycobacteria and Fungi

2.1 - Non Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infections in Transplant Patients

Presenter: Michele I., Morris, Miami, United States
Authors: Michele I. Morris

Nontuberculous mycobacteria  (NTM) are increasing in importance as pathogens infecting the immunocompromised transplant population. NTM are ubiquitous in the environment where they can be found in water, dust, and soil. Over 160 species have been identified, though only a few of these appear to cause the majority of human infections. Susceptibility profiles vary among and within species. NTM can cause localized infection, often involving the lungs or the skin, as well as disseminated infections. Infection can occur through a primary exposure post transplant, as well as reactivation in a recipient who was colonized or infected prior to transplantation. In addition, nosocomial infections can occur, and donor-derived NTM infections are possible.

This presentation will review the epidemiology of NTM infections, including patient specific risk factors such as transplant type, potential exposures, and immune deficits. Geographic factors predisposing to infection will be discussed. The challenges of diagnosis will be reviewed, emphasizing the importance of a species-specific diagnosis in formulating a treatment plan. Infection management will also be covered, including medication options as well as other treatment modalities. Finally, a brief discussion of expected patient outcomes will be provided.

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